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organizadores lineales

Organizadores lineales en el aprendizaje

En la actualidad existe una multiplicación de las técnicas de representación del conocimiento a través de los organizadores lineales y gráficos-visuales. En el proceso de aprendizaje, según la neuroeducación, el cerebro explora mediante la prelectura, analiza mediante la lectura comprensiva, visualiza mediante el subrayado y sintetiza a través de las representaciones lineales y gráficas del conocimiento adquirido. Existe un interés particular de los educadores por conocer y utilizar estas herramientas en el aprendizaje significativo  para, conocer su sustento pedagógico. Basado en los aportes de la psicología y la neurociencia. ¿Qué sabemos de los organizadores lineales?…

ORGANIZADORES LINEALES

En mi anterior artículo Organizadores gráficos en el aprendizaje, me enfoqué en las herramientas u organizadores visuales como estimulantes del pensar reflexivo y creativo. Ahora, me abocaré a uno de los organizadores lineales: el resumen. ¿Sabes cómo se elabora? ¿para qué sirve? Aquí te lo contamos…

El resumen

La táctica del resumen es una técnica fundamental que todo alumno o aprendiz de nivel escolar, universitario, técnico y profesional debe dominar.  Pero, nos encontramos con alumnos que a la hora de estudiar memorizan todo el texto mecánicamente. Sin pensar en lo que están intentando memorizar y aprender. Debiendo analizar las ideas principales, secundarias y terciarias del texto.

El resumen es una herramienta de aprendizaje que facilita a los alumnos la previa distinción del contenido que es relevante del irrelevante a aprender. Posibilita reducir el texto original a otro de menores dimensiones, facilitando su aprendizaje. La reducción ha de ser cuantitativa y cualitativa. Recogiendo sólo las ideas principales del autor, a través de una secuencia lineal, de manera lógica y según aparecen en el texto original.

Resumir significa hacer más breve el texto, expresando las ideas principales del autor y destacando lo esencial. Seleccionando el 25% o 30% del contenido del texto. Excluyendo los datos que no tienen importancia,  opiniones o críticas que el autor puede detallar.

¿Qué pasos debemos realizar para elaborar un resumen?

  1. Primero, realiza una prelectura o lectura general del texto, de manera veloz, superficial, corrida y total, para así extraer la idea general.
  2. A continuación, una lectura comprensiva o lectura analítica, de manera pausada, profunda, detenida (párrafo por párrafo) y específica, para identificar las ideas principales, secundarias y terciarias, asegurándote de que has comprendido todo perfectamente.
  3. Luego, se busca el significado de las palabras o los términos desconocidos.
  4. Después subraya del texto lo más importante. Destaca las ideas principales a través del subrayado lineal, estructural y de realce.
  5. Escribir el resumen o secuencia lineal de ideas principales con tus propias palabras, parafraseando, es decir intenta expresar las ideas principales con tu propio vocabulario (no debes copiar literalmente todas las palabras del texto original).
  6. Para finalizar, comprueba si las ideas esenciales del resumen que has elaborado coinciden con las del texto original. También, debes ver, si las ideas están bien ordenadas y desarrolladas según la estructura dada por el autor.

Características

  • El resumen ha de ser personal, propio.
  • Debe poseer una correcta estructura interna: las ideas principales han de ser desarrolladas de manera lógica o según aparecen en el texto original.
  • Conviene no utilizar muchos puntos y aparte. Es preferible hacer frases cortas y relacionadas.
  • Su extensión no ha de ser mayor a un tercio del texto sobre el que se hace.
  • Es un texto en prosa que ha de ser breve, conciso, claro y entenderse bien.

Ventajas

  • Desarrolla la capacidad de expresión escrita y de síntesis.
  • Aumenta la capacidad de atención y concentración.
  • Desarrolla la comprensión y el entendimiento.
  • Refuerza la habilidad de organizar lógicamente un material.
  • Es un instrumento importante para hacer repasos de lo estudiado.
  • Facilita enormemente la aplicación de la memoria asociativa.

Conclusión

A mi juicio, todas las técnicas para sintetizar el conocimiento son muy importantes. No se deben establecer preferencias, ni hablar de mayor o menor importancia entre el esquema, el resumen, el diagrama, la tabla sinóptica y el mapa conceptual, porque cada una de estas técnicas cumple su objetivo y todas, en perfecta interacción, contribuyen a un aprendizaje significativo, autónomo y verdaderamente eficaz.

Augusto Pérez-Rosas Cáceres

Diplomado en Neuroeducación, Diplomado en Liderazgo y Diplomado en Dirección Estratégica del Factor Humano. Educador de carrera con mención en Lengua y Literatura, experto en las Estrategias y Tácticas de Aprendizaje. Desde hace 30 años ejerce la docencia en colegios, institutos, universidades y escuelas de postgrado. Es Formador de Formadores, investigador y autor de más de doscientos registros bibliográficos, entre libros, artículos de revistas, ponencias a congresos, papers, guías y material didáctico. Posee el cargo de Director-Fundador del Instituto Desarrollo Intelectual (IDI).

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